The International Olympic Committee (IOC) will seek to establish a long-term sample storage scheme for pre-Games testing programmes.
The announcement follows an update from the International Testing Agency at the IOC's Executive Board meeting here.
"We have been informed by the ITA about the most comprehensive pre-Games testing programme ever, which is coordinated by ITA with the respective IFs prior to Tokyo 2020," IOC President Thomas Bach said.
"During this discussion the IOC Executive Board has made it clear that we would like to see such a long-term storage programme being established also for the pre-Games testing.
"For the Games the IOC is storing the samples for 10 years and we would like to see such a long-term storage also being applied for the pre-Games testing programme in order to increase and strengthen the deterrent effect."
In-Games test samples are already stored for 10 years under IOC and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) guidelines.
Bach revealed the IOC plan to have discussions with WADA, as well as International Federations, in the coming weeks to look at "how the programme could be managed and how a programme could be established ready for the pre-Games testing programme at the very beginning of next year".
The IOC Executive Board also approved the IOC Needle Policy for the Olympic Games in Tokyo and the Winter Youth Olympic Games in Lausanne next year.
Earlier today, WADA announced a deal with the IOC and ITA to develop and implement dried-blood-spot (DBS) testing.
Described as a potential "game-changer" for anti-doping at major sporting events, WADA believes it could lead to a quicker and easier system which would allow for more tests and, in turn, the potential to catch more cheats.
It could also be favoured by athletes as an alternative to the inconvenience of urine and blood tests, as a sample can be taken via a simple finger prick.
Anti-doping organisations in the Australia, China, Japan, Switzerland and the United States have already signed up to the programme.
"We have been informed by WADA that the dried blood spot test may already be available for Tokyo," added Bach.
"Together with the long-term storage programme we think we can really have a stronger programme and more deterrent anti-doping programme.
"We are, in particular, happy that the investment the IOC made at the very beginning through the Olympic Agenda 2020 into anti-doping research and developing new methods.
"We invested $10 million (£8 million/€9 million) in the research for doping and another $10 million in protection of clean athletes against manipulation of results of sporting events and related corruption.
"This investment is bearing fruit and we can see the results coming up."