Kazan and Budapest have been awarded the 2022 and 2024 World Short Course Swimming Championships respectively by the International Swimming Federation (FINA).
The decision was taken by the FINA Bureau following formal presentations by four bidders in Budapest, the Hungarian capital currently staging the 2017 FINA Aquatics Championships.
Chinese Taipei and Hong Kong were both unsuccessful with their bids.
Both winning cities will also stage the FINA World Aquatics Convention in their respective years.
"All these cities and National Federations have worked very hard to present solid projects and I am sure that in any of them FINA would organise excellent Championships," FINA President Julio Maglione said.
"Thank you very much to all the four bidders.
"But we are in a sport organisation and there must be a winner.
"In this case, two winners."
The selection of Kazan comes despite controversy over doping in Russia, with the Russian Anti-Doping Agency currently suspended.
Following the release of the McLaren Report last July, which alleged the presence of a state-sponsored doping scheme in Russia, the International Olympic Committee asked winter International Federations to freeze preparations for any competitions in the scandal-hit nation.
The call did not apply to summer sports, however.
The award to Kazan, the capital of the Tatarstan region which hosted the 2013 Summer Universiade, comes two years after the city staged the 2015 World Aquatics Championships.
The World Aquatics Championships was one of the events identified by Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren in his report as being affected by state-sponsored doping by Russian competitors.
"FINA knows Kazan very well," Vladimir Leonov, Minister of Sport and Youth in Tatarstan, said.
"We have the necessary infrastructures and the full support of our authorities.
"We are known as the sport capital of Russia, and everyone in the FINA family fully understands the meaning of this status."
Budapest, who have followed Kazan in staging the World Aquatics Championships, will now succeed the Russian city in holding the short course event, which sees races held over 25 metres instead of the Olympic 50m.
Before Kazan 2022 and Budapest 2024, Hangzhou in China in 2018 and Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates in 2020 are due to host the World Short Course Championships and Convention.