Alexander Zubkov has been banned for two years ©Getty Images

The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation (IBSF) has banned Alexander Zubkov and three other Russian sliders for two years.

Russian Bobsleigh Federation (RBF) President Zubkov has been hit with the sanction alongside Alexander Kasjanov, Aleksei Pushkarev and Ilvir Khuzin.

They had all been serving provisional suspensions after being accused of anti-doping violations at Russia's home Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics, where the country was found to have run a campaign of sample swapping and cheating.

Zubkov won both two-man and four-man gold medals in Sochi while the remaining trio competed together in Russia's second four-man team, coming fourth.

In a sanction separate to the IBSF proceedings, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) has already ruled that Zubkov is obliged to return his medals after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) found him guilty of knowingly participating in the "systematic manipulation" of the anti-doping system.

The case against him is said to be one of the strongest as his sample included "physiologically impossible levels of salt".

CAS also ruled that he had provided clean urine before Sochi - a key barometer in establishing guilt of the individual athletes involved.

This stance has now been accepted by the IBSF Disciplinary Panel which had access to CAS reasoned decisions on all four athletes.

Alexander Zubkov celebrates after winning a second gold medal at Sochi 2014 in the four-man ©Getty Images
Alexander Zubkov celebrates after winning a second gold medal at Sochi 2014 in the four-man ©Getty Images

"The Panel has concluded that the results of the scientific analysis of the content of the athlete's urine samples from the Sochi Games - namely the physiologically impossible level of sodium in one of the athlete's samples - establish to the Panel's comfortable satisfaction that the athlete provided clean urine in advance of the Sochi Games," the Panel's decision said.

"He did this for the purpose of enabling the subsequent swapping of his urine samples during the Sochi Games; and that his samples at the Sochi Games were in fact subsequently swapped, with salt being added to the substituted urine in an effort to conceal the existence of the substitution."

All four sliders have been found guilty of using a prohibited substance and the use of a prohibited method - namely urine substitution. 

As well as being barred from competition, their bans also cover work as an official, director, officer, employee or volunteer at a National Organisation.

This means that the retired Zubkov, Russia's Sochi 2014 flagbearer, should not be allowed to continue as RBF President.

However, he has so far acted defiantly and said he will only return his medals if the IOC ask him personally.

In another twist, a court in Moscow refused to recognise the CAS ruling against Zubkov, saying it should not apply on Russian territory.

All four athletes have also had results and prize money expunged.

They have the option to appeal the bans at CAS.