The full reasoning against Alexander Zubkov has been published by the IOC ©Getty Images

A full decision published by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) explaining their move to disqualify Alexander Zubkov from Sochi 2014 and strip him of the two gold medals he won there has listed "numerous elements" supposedly proving the Russian's involvement in doping.

Zubkov, who also carried the Russian flag at the Opening Ceremony of Sochi 2014 and is now President of the Russian Bobsleigh Federation (RBF), is among 25 athletes to have so far been retrospectively sanctioned.

He is the second to have their full decision published after gold and silver medal winning cross-country skier Alexander Legkov.

Like with Legkov, Zubkov submitted sample bottles bearing conclusive evidence of "multiple T Marks".

Extensive analysis carried out in conjunction with a Swiss Laboratory found that this proved they had been illegally re-opened and tampered with. 

It is claimed there is no explanation for doing this other than to replace actual urine samples containing banned substances with clean supplies.

Zubkov also submitted samples showing salt levels which are "clearly non-physiological" which is viewed as an attempt to further mask doping.

He is included on the Duchess List of athletes drawn up by former Moscow Laboratory director turned whistleblower, Grigory Rodchenkov, who created a cocktail containing banned steroids and had test results switched to hide failures.

Rodchenkov also "specifically recalls" swapping sessions for Zubkov on February 5, 2014 and on February 23, 2014, with each time corresponding with entries in his diary. 

Alexander Zubkov celebrates the first of his two gold medals at Sochi 2014 ©Getty Images
Alexander Zubkov celebrates the first of his two gold medals at Sochi 2014 ©Getty Images

Zubkov won the Olympic two-man event on February 16 and 17 with partner Alexey Voyevoda before the duo combined with Aleksei Negodailo and Dmitrii Trunenkov to claim four-man gold on February 22 and 23.

Negodailo and Trunenkov have also been disqualified directly by the IOC but Voyevoda has not yet been implicated - although he will also lose both gold medals as a result of his team-mates' transgressions.

Rodchenkov also claims that the Russian team "skipped a competition planned just before Sochi to be able to prepare for the Olympic Games with the Duchess cocktail".

This latter comment refers to an International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation (IBSF) World Cup in Königssee in Germany in January 2014, which the team missed in order, they said, to practice on the Sochi track. 

But, if the real reason was as Rodchenkov alleges, it suggests that the RBF were also complicit, as they were responsible for team selections, and they would consequently be at risk of a sanction by the IBSF.

"The Disciplinary Commission observes that the indications of Dr Rodchenkov concerning the overall bobsleigh team are corroborated by objective elements obtained in the forensic examination of the samples and the salt content study," the IOC decision on Zubkov rules.

"No fewer than seven other members of the men's bobsleigh team were found with samples with significant multiple T-marks and/or abnormal salt levels. 

"Based on the above elements, the Disciplinary Commission has no hesitation to conclude that it is more than comfortably satisfied that the athlete was a participant in, and a beneficiary of, the cover up scheme implemented on the occasion of the Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014."

Alexander Zubkov, second right, alongside Russian President Vladimir Putin at the Closing Ceremony of Sochi 2014 ©Getty Images
Alexander Zubkov, second right, alongside Russian President Vladimir Putin at the Closing Ceremony of Sochi 2014 ©Getty Images

The IOC also repeat their verdict that Rodchenkov, despite his past involvement in the scheme, is a reliable witness.

They claim his testimony fits with the other evidence and is strengthened by how he only commented on certain cases and often admitted that he could not remember everything - meaning that what he did recall was consequently more reliable.

"The Disciplinary Commission has come to the conclusion that, whatever his motivation may be and whichever wrongdoing he may have committed in the past, Dr Rodchenkov was telling the truth when his provided explanations of the cover-up scheme that he managed," the decision stated.

Zubkov is among 22 Russians to have so far lodged appeals with the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne.

No date has been given for when they will be heard.

The full reasoned decision can be read here.