Wrestling, boxing and weightlifting had the highest percentage of Adverse Analytical Findings (AAF) of the Summer Olympic sports in 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Testing Figures Report has shown.
The Report only records AAFs where banned substances were found, rather than confirmed Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRV), and so not all of the cases recorded will have necessarily resulted in sanctions.
Additionally, one single result may not correspond to one athlete, with multiple findings from athletes possible.
Of all the summer sports which will feature at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games, baseball and softball had the highest percentage of AAFs, with 5.3.
Both sports will return to the Olympic programme in the Japanese capital after being absent since Beijing 2008.
The World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) highlighted that the AAFs did not necessarily mean an anti-doping violation when contacted by insidethegames, referencing the potential Therapeutic Use Exemptions and multiple samples from the same athlete.
"Regarding the AAF’s, these findings reflect more overall testing in baseball in this global fight against doping, in order to protect the clean athletes and effectively catch the cheats," a WBSC spokesman added.
"The results also reflect more advanced and comprehensive testing techniques.
"WBSC will continue to support a policy of increased testing to safeguard our sport and follow WADA’s guidance in this regard."
Wrestling at 2.7, boxing at 2.0 and weightlifting at 1.9 were the top three of the Rio 2016 Olympic sports.
According to the WADA figures, only two tests were carried out in skateboarding last year.
No tests had been carried out in skateboarding in 2015.
The sport was added to the Olympic programme in August 2016 as one of the five additional sports selected by Tokyo 2020, at the same time as baseball and softball's return was confirmed.
There were 300,565 samples collected in total last year.
Athletics, cycling and football conducted the most drug tests in 2016, having also been responsible for the most tests in 2015.
A total of 33,227 football samples were analysed across WADA-approved laboratories, compared to 31,433 in athletics and 23,132 in cycling.
All three sports conducted more tests than they did in 2015.
Aquatics was the next on the list with 15,174 samples collected, followed by weightlifting with 8,834 and rugby union with 7,366.
Basketball and wrestling were the only other sports on the Rio 2016 Olympic programme to conduct more than 5,000 tests last year.
Golf collected the least samples of the sports at Rio 2016, with a total of 612 tests taking place.
Modern pentathlon and equestrian conducted 639 and 671 tests respectively.
Skiing produced the highest number of samples in Winter Olympic sports in 2016, with 4,738 collected.
It was followed by skating and ice hockey, which collected 3,611 and 3,229 respectively.
The latter had the highest percentage of AAFs at 1.1.
Curling collected the fewest samples of the winter sports, with 224 collected and no AAFs recorded.
Of all the non-Olympic sports, bridge had the highest percentage of AAFs.
A total of 22 per cent of the 59 samples collected resulted in an AAF.
Bodybuilding had the second highest percentage, at 19 per cent, with kickboxing following at 6.4.
Sambo and muay-thai had 5.9 and 5.5 per cent of samples result in an AAF respectively.
The report summarises the results of all the samples WADA-accredited laboratories analysed and reported in WADA's Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS).
WADA's 2016 Testing Figures Report is the second set of global testing data since the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code came into effect at the start of last year.
In response to the report, the International Boxing Association (AIBA) stated its anti-doping efforts continue to be "central to its work in governing the sport of boxing around the world".
“In 2016, AIBA committed to a significant increase in investment to ensure compliance with WADA codes going forward, and has continued to tackle the issue by placing it squarely at the forefront of the AIBA family educational campaign," an AIBA spokesperson said.
“WADA’s new figures reflect that extra testing carried out last year and the closer cooperation between the Agency and AIBA.
“Rather than suggest boxing has a doping problem, they underline that we are taking the right steps to identifying those individuals looking to gain unfair advantage and moving closer to eradicating it from the sport.
“In-competition testing is being continuously carried out according to WADA requirements throughout all AIBA competitions and out-of-competition testing is based on the registered testing pool list.
“In addition, boxers are subject to out-of-competition tests operated by their National Anit-Doping Organisation and/or Regional Anti-Doping Organisation."
“We know that there is a lot more work to do, but we are moving in the right direction," an International Weightlifting Federation statement read.
“We are fully committed to protecting clean athletes and will continue to implement the strongest anti-doping measures to address the incidence of doping in the sport.
“While our incidence of adverse analytical findings was consistent with many other Olympic sports last year, the number of tests we carried out was completely out of proportion to the size of our federation.
“Only in cycling, athletics and aquatics were there more tests.
"This is a clear sign of the IWF’s total commitment to protecting clean athletes.
“If the amount of testing demonstrates our commitment, then so does the action we took recently to sanction those member federations who were shown to have three or more anti-doping rule violations in the retesting for Beijing 2008 and London 2012.”
insidethegames has also contacted the governing bodies for wrestling and skateboarding for comment.
The below table outlines the total number of samples taken in Summer and Winter Olympic sports as well as the total number and percentages of AAFs found:
|Sport||Total samples||Total AAFs||Per cent of AAFs|
The full report can be found here 2016_anti-doping_testing_figures.pdf