Italy won four gold medals on day one of the International Cycling Union Para-cycling Road World Championships in Pietermaritzburg.
Three titles were also won by Germany as time trial action took centre stage in the South African city.
Alessandro Zanardi won a ninth world title for Italy as the former motor racing driver won the men's H5 class.
The 50-year-old, a quadruple Paralympic champion who lost both of his legs after a motorsport accident in 2001, won in 37min 47.96sec.
Silver was won by Tim De Vries of The Netherlands, two seconds back in 37:50.59.
Portugal's Luis Costa won bronze after clocking 38:35.47.
Francesca Porcellato also claimed Italian gold in the women's H3 time trial.
The reigning time trial and road race world champion battled back after a serious injury saw her lose the use of her right arm two months before the Rio 2016 Paralympics.
Porcellato, who still won two bronze medals in Rio in September, said: "I am just so happy.
"I worked a lot for this.
"I wanted this medal, and I wanted this colour.
"My win today is good for me mentally."
The winning time was 31:16.70 with Poland's Renata Kaluza timed at 33:14.03 for silver.
Bronze went to Slovakia's Anna Oroszova in 33:52.38.
Luca Mazzone and Paolo Cecchetto also tasted gold for Italy in the men's H2 and H3 classes respectively.
A time of 29:19.00 was enough for Mazzone to win, as American William Groulx won silver in 29:25.63.
Sergio Muaoz Garrote of Spain won bronze in 31:21.98.
Cecchetto clocked 39:30.59 for his gold medal.
Switzerland's Heinz Frei won silver in 39:55.97 and bronze went to Charles Moreau of Canada in 40:22.98.
Germany's gold rush was headed by Hans-Peter Durst, who won at the age of 59 in the men's T2.
He won in 27:41.14 as American Ryan Boyle managed 27:57.17 for silver.
Bronze went to Stephen Hills of New Zealand in 29:21.08.
Christiane Reppe and Andrea Eskau added further German golds in their respective H4 and H5 categories.
Reppe came home in 32:08.05 with silver going to Sandra Graf of Switzerland in 33:21.34 and the bronze to Russia's Svetlana Moshkovich in 33:22.44.
Eskau triumphed in 27:47.61 to claim a big win over silver medallist Laura De Vaan of The Netherlands, who stopped the watches at 29:06.63.
Bronze went to another Dutchwoman as Jennette Jansen ended on 30:09.82.
More time trial action will be held tomorrow.